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Os Navios

Os Navios


Durante o grande fluxo imigratório, milhares de famílias italianas e espanholas deixaram para trás suas casas, suas cidades e suas pátrias. Viajaram em trens, carroças e até mesmo a pé, carregando todos os seus pertences (percorriam grandes distâncias até os portos para embarque). Com relação aos nossos antepassados, os mesmos embarcaram nos portos italianos de Genova, Napoli e Palermo e no porto espanhol de Málaga. Com poucas informações sobre o Brasil, os imigrantes precaviam-se trazendo toda sorte de bagagens: utensílios domésticos, máquinas de costura, instrumentos musicais e de trabalho, relíquias de família e objetos que lembrassem sua terra natal. Geralmente não possuíam malas, e seus pertences eram transportados em sacos, sacolas e caixas improvisadas.

Os recursos para as passagens algumas vezes eram próprios, mas na maioria das vezes eram subsidiados pelo Governo da Província de São Paulo. Eram embarcados na terceira classe dos navios, geralmente localizada nos porões dos mesmos e com lotação acima da capacidade. No final do século XIX as viagens já eram feitas em navios a vapor, conhecidos como vapores, mais rápidos que os navios a vela, porém com péssimas instalações, pois geralmente eram navios de carga adaptados para o transporte de passageiros. A travessia do Oceano Atlântico era realizada entre 21 e 30 dias.

Nesta página você encontrará uma breve descrição sobre a história dos navios a vapor nos quais nossos antepassados italianos e espanhóis efetuaram a travessia do Oceano Atlântico rumo ao até então desconhecido Brasil, em busca de uma condição de vida melhor para si e seus familiares. Em alguns resumos, foram transcritos os textos originais em inglês, para preservar a originalidade dos mesmos.


Família Mendola

História do Navio a Vapor Rosario

O navio Rosario pesava 1.957 toneladas e media 85,95 m por 10,73 m. Foi construído por Wigham Richardson & Co em Walker-onTyne e em 17/09/1887 foi lançado ao mar por Fratelli Lavarello. Em 01/12/1887 iniciou a rota MV Gênova-América do Sul. Em 1891 passou à La Veloce e continuou na rota Gênova-América do Sul. Em 1898 foi vendido à empresa francesa Cie Mixte e teve seu nome trocado para Djurjura. Em 23/12/1915 afundou depois de uma colisão com o navio Empress of Britain. [South Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, p.280 - Fonte: Material obtido junto ao site www.imigrantesitalianos.com.br]


Famílias Ravagnani e Bariani

História do Navio a Vapor Poitou

The Poitou of 1867 belonged to the French SGTM Line, Societe Generale de Transports Maritimes. She was 2303 tons gross, 99.00m long x 10.6m beam which is 324.8ft x 34.8ft. She had one funnel, 2 masts, iron construction, single propeller, 2 inverted engines giving a speed of 10 knots. She was built by Malcolmson Brothers in Waterford, Ireland, launched in 1867. Oct 1867 maiden voyage Marseilles (in France) to Rio de Janeiro. 1868 first voyage Marseilles - Buenos Aires. In the 1870s her inverted engines were replaced by compound engines. She was scrapped in 1893. [South Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor - Fonte: Material obtido junto ao site www.theshipslist.com]


Famílias Cremon, Degliuomini e Bertassello

História do Navio a Vapor Florida (Cavour)

Built by Societa Esercizio Bacini, Rive Trigoso, Italy for Lloyd Italiano of Genoa, this was a 5,018 gross ton ship, length 381.4 ft x beam 48.1 ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and speed of 14 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 25 - 1st and 1,600 - 3rd class. Launched in 22nd June 1905, she started her maiden voyage on 18th September 1905 when she left Genoa for Naples and Buenos Aires. After this voyage she commenced Genoa - Palermo - Naples - New York sailings on 15th November 1905. On 23rd January 1909 she collided with and sank the White Star liner "Republic" in dense fog off the US coast. Although receiving a badly damaged bow, she managed to reach New York and was repaired. This was the first occasion when wireless telegraphy was uswd to summon assistance at sea. Her last Genoa - Palermo - Naples - New York voyage started 20th April 1911, and her first class accommodation was downgraded to 2nd class. Sold to Ligure Brasiliana of Genoa the same year, she was renamed "Cavour" and was used for Genoa - South America sailings. In 1914 she went to Transatlantica Italiana and was sunk in collision with the Italian Auxiliary Cruiser "Caprera"on 12th December 1917 near Armevilla. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.3, p.1344] - [Posted to the Ships List by Ted Finch - 12 October 1998 - Fonte: Material obtido junto aos sites www.fortunecity.com/littleitaly/amalfi/13/ships.htm e www.emigranti.rai.it]


Famílias Della Colletta e Gava

História do Navio a Vapor Mentmore (Assiduità)


This was a 3,296 gross tons, length 339.6 ft x beam 40.2 ft (103.50 m x 12.25 m), one funnel, two masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 10 knots. Accommodation for 1,200 - 3rd class passengers. Built by J. Key & Sons, Kinghorn, she was launched on 19th February 1882 as the Mentmore for the Johnston Line. In 1896 she was purchased by the Zino Line of Italy, renamed "Assiduità" and started her first Genoa - River Plate voyage on 20th January 1896. She continued in this service until 1900 when she switched to the New Orleans - Italy cotton trade. On 16th November 1900 she caught fire in the North Atlantic and was abandoned, the crew being rescued by the British steamer Lanarkshire. [South Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, p.326 - Fonte: Material obtido junto ao site www.theshipslist.com]


Famílias Minatel e Arnosti

História do Navio a Vapor Teutonia (Regina)

The "Teutonia" was built by Caird & Co, Greenock for the Hamburg-Brazilian Line in 1856. She was a 2,693 gross ton ship, length 282.1 ft x beam 39.4 ft, clipper stem, one funnel, three masts (barque rigged for sails), iron construction, single screw and a speed of 10 knots. Launched on 4th August 1856, she was bought by Hamburg America Line on 21st October 1858 and commenced her first voyage for this company on 15th July 1859 when she sailed from Hamburg for Southampton and New York. In November 1867 she started seasonal sailings between Hamburg and New Orleans. On 31st May 1870 she left Hamburg on her last voyage to Havre and New York and subsequently ran between Hamburg and the West Indies. In 1872 she was fitted with compound engines and in 1877 was sold to the Dominion Line. She started her first voyage for this company on 13rd March 1877 when she left Liverpool, Quebec and Montreal. In 1883 she was sold to other British owners and in 1884 went to Francesco Costa of Italy who renamed her "Regina". In 1889 she was renamed "Piemontese" and in 1890 became the "Citta di Savona". In 1891 she was sold to Schiaffino and named either "Mentana" or "Montana" and in 1894 was scrapped at Spezia. [North Atlantic Seaway by N.R.P. Bonsor, vol.1, p.388] - [Merchant Fleets by Duncan Haws, vol. 4, Hamburg America Line] - [Posted to the Ships List by Ted Finch - 13 December 1997 - Fonte: Material obtido junto ao site www.fortunecity.com/littleitaly/amalfi/13/ships.htm]


Famílias Fernandez e Gordillo

História do Navio a Vapor Dunrobin Castle (Notre Dame de Salut)

Was built in 1875 by Robert Napier & Sons at Glasgow with a tonnage of 2811grt, a length of 342ft 4in, a beam of 38ft 4in and a service speed of 10 knots. She was the first genuine mail steamer for Donald Currie's South African service and, on her maiden voyage, broke the Cape record by 12 hours. In 1876 she was transferred to the Castle Mail Steam Packets Co. Ltd. On 27th January 1879 she brought the first news to Britain about the Zulu victory at Isandhlwana, 110 miles northwest of Durban on the Buffalo River, when 18000 Zulus surprised four companies of the 24th Foot Regiment and virtually annihilated them when they killed some 800 men. Led by Cetawayo the Zulus lost 2000 warriors. In 1883 she was transferred to the Intermediate service and on 6th June 1892 was the first ocean-going ship to cross the newly dredged Durban bar and enter the inner port. She was sold to Armement Letocart & Cie of Marseilles in 1893 for the pilgrim run to Palestine and renamed "Notre Dame de Salut" (N. D. Salut). In the same year she was used as a hospital ship first in Madagasgar and then, in 1900, at the Boxer uprising in China. In 1902 she was sold to L. Bertreaux of Marseilles for their Palestine service with the name Etoile and was eventually broken up at Genoa in 1914. [Fonte: Material obtido junto ao site www.red-duster.co.uk/UNION11.htm]

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